Decentralised EU agencies play an important role in the European Union (EU). They  have been set up by the EU to perform technical and scientific tasks that help the EU institutions implement policies and take decisions. They are spread across the EU. In parenthesis number of staff.

  1. Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER), Ljubljana, Slovenia (92) The European Union Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) was established in March 2011 by the Third Energy Package legislation as an independent body to foster the integration and completion of the European Internal Energy Market (IEM) both for electricity and natural gas. By fostering the cooperation among National Energy Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), ACER ensures that market integration and the implementation of the national legislations are achieved according to the EU's energy policy objectives and regulatory frameworks.
  2. Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO), Angers, France (45): The Community Plant Variety Office is a self-financed EU agency responsible for the management of the Community Plant Variety Right System.
  3. EU Agencies Network (EUAN)
  4. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), Bilbao, Spain (65): EU-OSHA is the European Union information agency for occupational safety and health. Its work contributes to the European Commission’s Stratregic Framework for Safety and Health at work and other relevant EU strategies and programmes, such as Europe 2020.
  5. European Agency for the Operational Management of large scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (EU-LISA), Tallinn, Estonia (140): The agency supports the implementation of the EU’s Justice and Home Affairs policies by managing large-scale IT systems. It manages large-scale integrated It systems that maintain internal security in the Schengen countries, enable Schengen countries to exchange visa data, determine which EU country is responsible for examining a particular asylum application. It helps ensure Europeans can travel freely within the EU, without compromising Europe’s security. The agency also tests new technologies to help put in place a more modern, efficient and secure border management system in the EU. It coordinated the testing and follow-up of the Smart Borders pilot project, the analysis of results and reporting on the pilot project, in close cooperation with the participating countries and the EU institutions.
  6. European Asylum Support Office (EASO), Valletta, Malta (149): The agency acts as a centre of expertise on asylum; contributes to the development of the Common European Asylum System by facilitating, coordinating and strengthening practical cooperation among Member States on the many aspects of asylum; helps Member States fulfill their European and international obligations to give protection to people in need; provides practical and technical support to Member States and the European Commission; provides operational support to Member States with specific needs and to Member States whose asylum and reception systems are under particular pressure; provides evidence-based input for EU policymaking and legislation in all areas having a direct or indirect impact on asylum.
  7. European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) , Cologne, Germany (676): The mission, of the agency is to ensure the highest common level of safety protection for EU citizens; to ensure the highest common level of environmental protection; to provide a single regulatory and certification process among Member States; to facilitate the international aviation single market and create a level playing field; to work with other international aviation organizations and regulators. Its tasks include drafting implementing rules in all fields pertinent to the EASA mission; certifying and approving products and organizations in fields where EASA has exclusive competence (e.g. airworthiness); providing oversight and support to Member States in fields where EASA has shared competence (e.g. Air Operations, Air Traffic Management); promoting the use of European and worldwide standards; cooperating with international actors in order to achieve the highest safety level for EU citizens globally (e.g. EU safety list, Third Country Operators authorizations).
  8. European Banking Authority (EBA), Paris, France (189):  The EBA is the EU agency tasked with implementing a standard set of rules to regulate and supervise banking across all EU countries. Its aim is to create an efficient, transparent and stable single market in EU banking products. The agency provides input into the creation of a single, standard set of rules for EU banking- the Single Rulebook; provides centralized disclosure of supervisory data on EU banks (to increase transparency, market discipline and financial stability across the EU); promotes cooperation between national authorities on supervising banking groups that operate in more than 1 country, and mediates disputes involving more than 1 country; promotes a transparent, simple and fair EU market for consumers of financial products and services, and ensures all consumers are treated fairly and protected across the EU.
  9. European Boarder and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX), Warsaw, Poland (417): Frontex helps EU countries and Schengen associated countries manage their external borders. It also helps to harmonize border controls across the EU. The agency facilitates cooperation between border authorities in each EU country, providing technical support and expertise. Europe’s external borders have seen an unprecedented rise in the number of migrants and refugees wishing to enter the EU in recent years. Countries that have an external border have sole responsibility for border control. But Frontex can provide additional technical support for EU countries facing severe migratory pressure. It does this by coordinating the deployment of additional technical equipment (e.g. aircraft and boats) and specially-trained border staff. Frontex coordinates maritime operations (e.g. in Greece, Italy and Spain) but also at external land borders, including in Bulgaria, Romania, Poland and Slovakia. It is also present at many international airports across Europe. Frontex has several areas of responsibility, laid down in the legal basis. These include: Risk analysis: all Frontex activities are risk-analysis driven. Frontex assesses risks to EU border security. It builds up a picture of patterns and trends in irregular migration and cross-border criminal activity at external borders, including human trafficking. It shares its findings with EU countries and the Commission and used by the agency for planning its activities. Joint operations: -coordinates the deployment of specially trained staff and technical equipment (aircraft, vessels, and border control/surveillance equipment) to external border areas in need of additional assistance. Rapid response: If an EU country is facing extreme pressure at an external border, especially the arrival of large numbers of non-EU nationals, Frontex coordinates the deployment of European Border Guard Teams. Research: brings border control experts together with research and industry to make sure new technology meet the needs of border control authorities. Training: develops common training standards for border authorities, to harmonize border guard education in EU and Schengen associated countries. This harmonization is intended to ensure that wherever travelers cross an external EU border, they will encounter uniform border control standards. It also enables border guards from different countries to work together efficiently while deployed to join operations coordinated by Frontex. Joint returns: develops best practices for returning migrants and coordinates joint return operations (but individual countries decide who should be returned). Information-sharing: develops and operates information systems that enable swift exchange of information about border authorities.
  10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden (286): ECDC is an EU agency aimed at strengthening Europe’s defenses against infectious diseases. The core functions cover a wide spectrum of activities: surveillance, epidemic intelligence, response, scientific advice, microbiology, preparedness, public health training, international relations, health communication, and the scientific journal Eurosurveillance. ECDC disease programs cover antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections; emerging and vector-borne diseases; food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses; HIV, sexually transmitted infections and viral hepatitis; influenza and other respiratory viruses; tuberculosis; and vaccine-preventable diseases.  In 2019, ECDC continued to contribute to health security, giving particular attention to the following areas: tackle antimicrobian resistance, improve vaccine coverage in the EU, support the European Commission and the Member States in addressing the Sustainable Development Goals in the area of HIV, TB and hepatitis, further support the European Commission and the Member States in strengthening the preparedness for cross-border health threats; focus on strategic partnerships to create synergy and avoid duplication of work, further enhance ECDC’s operational performance and monitoring.
  11. European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP), Tessaloniki, Greece (94): CEDEFOP provides the data on which vocational education and training policy in the EU is based. The European Centre for the Development of Vocational training helps develop and implement EU vocational training policies. It monitors labor market trends and helps the European Commission, EU countries, employers’ organizations and trade unions to match training provision to labor market needs.  CEDEFOP brings together policymakers, employers’ organizations and trade unions, training institutions, teachers and trainers, and learners of all ages- everyone with a stake in vocational education and training. At the crossroads between education systems and the world of work, CEDEFOP operates as a forum, allowing the organizations with a stake in its work to share ideas and debate how best to improve vocational education and training in Europe. It shares its expertise with political organizations and the two sides of industry in the EU countries to help them generate learning and working opportunities.
  12. European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), Helsinki, Finland (580): The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is the central agency to implement the EU’s chemicals legislation to protect people and the environment from the hazards of chemicals. It also contributes to a well-functioning internal market and the innovation and competitiveness of the European chemicals industry. ECHA develops independent scientific and technical opinions and takes binding decisions to ensure that chemicals companies comply with European law. Its committees provide scientific advice to the European Commission, relating to hazards and risks of chemicals, their impact on society and ways to mitigate their risks. ECHA practices transparent decision-making and its independency policy is used to monitor and prevent any conflicts of interest. The Agency hosts the largest database on chemicals in the world and uses this knowledge to advance the safe use of chemicals. The database contains more than 245 000 chemicals. Companies, researchers, industry and consumers can benefit from this data as well as the software formats and tools to use it. ECHA plays an important role in reducing chemical pollution in the EU. Together with EU Member States and the European Commission, ECHA ensures safer chemicals use in Europe by improving the available data, disseminating and checking it and proposing risk management measures when needed. The Agency contributes to sustainability and circular economy. All materials and products are made of chemicals. Better knowledge and regulation of hazardous chemicals makes recycling easier, protects workers, consumers and the environment, and enables industry to innovate, improve product quality and replace hazardous substances with safer ones. ECHA’s work has a global dimension. The Agency helps to make the import and export of dangerous chemicals more transparent and contributes to limiting the most hazardous pollutants worldwide. This work is part of the United Nations’ worldwide conventions that protect people and the environment from hazardous chemicals. An independent Management Board governs the Agency. It is composed of representatives from EU Member States, the European Commission, the European Parliament and stakeholder organisations
  13. European Defence Agency (EDA), Brussels, Belgium (127): The European Defense Agency was established to support the Member States and the Council in their efforts to improve European Defense capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the European Security and Defense Policy. The European Defense Agency has three main missions: supporting the development of defense capabilities and military cooperation among the European Union Member States; stimulating defense Research and Technology (R&T) and strengthening the European defense industry; acting as a military interface to EU policies. EDA acts as a catalyst, promotes collaborations, launches new initiatives and introduces solutions to improve defence capabilities. It is the place where Member States willing to develop capabilities in cooperation do so. It is also a key facilitator in developing the capabilities necessary to underpin the Common Security and Defence Policy of the Union.
  14. European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, Denmark (205):  The European Environment Agency (EEA) is an agency of the European Union, whose task is to provide sound, independent information on the environment. The EEA aims to support sustainable development by helping to achieve significant and measurable improvement in Europe's environment, through the provision of timely, targeted, relevant and reliable information to policymaking agents and the public. The European environment information and observation network (Eionet) is a partnership network of the EEA and its member and cooperating countries. Through Eionet, the EEA brings together environmental information from individual countries concentrating on the delivery of timely, nationally validated, high-quality data. This knowledge is made widely available through the EEA website and forms the basis of both thematic and integrated environmental assessments. This information serves to support environmental management processes, environmental policymaking and assessment, as well as citizen participation
  15. European Fisheries Control Agency (EFCA), Vigo, Spain (61): EFCA ensures that the EU’s common fisheries policy is properly applied. Its mission is to promote the highest common standards for control, inspection and surveillance under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). EFCA does this by coordinating the cooperation between national control and inspection activities. EFCA also assists the Commission and EU Member States by providing training to EU Member State inspectors and trainers to ensure that the CFP rules are properly applied.
  16. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy (447): The European Food Safety Authority provides independent scientific advice on food-related risks. EFSA issues advice on existing and emerging food risks. This advice informs European laws, rules and policy making and so helps to protect consumers from risks in the food chain. Its remit covers: food and feed safety, nutrition, animal health and welfare, plant protection, plan health. EFSA’s work involves: gathering scientific data and expertise; providing independent, up-to-date scientific advice on food safety issues; communicating its scientific work to the public; cooperating with EU countries, international bodies, and other stakeholders; boosting trust in the EU’s food safety system by providing dependable advice.  
  17. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EUROFOUND), Dublin, Ireland (94): The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) is a tripartite European Union Agency, whose role is to provide knowledge to assist in the development of better social, employment and work-related policies. Eurofound provides information, advice and expertise on working conditions and sustainable work, industrial relations, labour market change and quality and life and public services, to support the EU Institutions and bodies, Member States and Social Partners in shaping and implementing social and employment policies, as well as promoting social dialogue on the basis of comparative information, research and analysis. Eurofound aims to support the policymaking activities of EU institutions, governments, employers, trade unions and civil society organisations.
  18. European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Agency (GSA), Prague, Czech Republic (145): The GSA’s mission is to support European Union objectives and achieve the highest return on European GNSS investment, in terms of benefits to users and economic growth and competitiveness by: designing and enabling services that fully respond to user needs, while continuously improving the European GNSS services and Infrastructure; managing the provision of quality services that ensure satisfaction in the most cost-efficient manner; engaging market stakeholders to develop innovative and effective applications, value-added services and user technology that promote the achievement of full European GNSS adoption; ensuring that European GNSS services and operations are thoroughly secure, safe and accessible.
  19. European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE), Vilnius, Lithuania (43): EIGE was established to contribute to and strengthen the promotion of gender equality, including gender mainstreaming in all EU policies and the resulting national policies, and the fight against discrimination based on sex, as well as to raise EU citizens’ awareness of gender equality. Key objectives are to provide high quality research and data to support informed and evidence based decision-making by policymakers and other key stakeholders working to achieve gender equality; to manage all knowledge produced by EIGE to enable timely and innovative communication that meets the targeted needs of key stakeholders; to meet the highest administrative and financial standards while supporting the needs of EIGE’s personnel.
  20. European Institute for Security Studies(EUISS), Paris, France (20):  The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is the Union’s Agency analysing foreign, security and defence policy issues. Its core mission is to assist the EU and its member states in the implementation of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the Common Security and Defense Policy(CSDP) as well as other external action of the Union. The Institute also acts as an interface between the EU institutions and external experts including security actors to develop the EU’s strategic thinking. The EUISS is now an integral part of the structures that underpin the further development of the CFSP/CSDP.
  21. European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), Budapest, Hungary: The EIT was created in 2008 to strengthen Europe’s ability to innovate. EIT’s mission is to contribute to the competitiveness of Europe, its sustainable economic growth and job creation by promoting synergies and cooperation among businesses, education institutions and research organization; to create favourable environments for creative thought to enable world-class innovation and entrepreneurship to thrive in Europe. The EIT is an integral part of Horizon 2020, the EU’s Framework Program for Research and Innovation. Bringing together more than 1 500 partners, the EIT is Europe’s largest innovation network. Together with leading partners, the EIT Community offers a wide range of innovation and entrepreneurship activities: education courses that combine technical and entrepreneurial skills, tailored business creation and acceleration services and innovation driven research projects. This brings new ideas and solutions to the market, turns students into entrepreneurs and, most importantly, delivers innovation. The EIT nurtures entrepreneurial talent and supports new ideas, bringing together the ‘knowledge triangle’ of leading companies, universities and research centres to form dynamic cross-border partnerships called Innovation Communities (KIC- Knowledge and Innovation Community).
  22. European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA), Frankfurt, Germany (151): EIOPA is the European supervisory authority for occupational pensions and insurance. It is part of the European System of Financial supervision. It provides advice to the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. EIOPA is responsible for helping keep the financial system stable; ensuring markets and financial products are transparent; helping protect insurance policyholders, pension scheme members and beneficiaries. The European System of Financial Supervision comprises European supervisory authorities and national authorities. It links financial oversight at systemic and firm level. This leaves day-to-day supervision to national authorities.
  23. European Labour Authority (ELA), Bratislava, Slovakia: ELA ensures that EU rules on labour mobility are enforced in a fair, simple and effective way. The role of ELA is to facilitate access for individuals and employers to information on their rights and obligations as well as to relevant services; to support cooperation between EU countries in the cross-border enforcement of relevant Union law, including facilitating joint inspections; to mediate and facilitate a solution in cases of cross-border disputes between national authorities or labour market disruptions.
  24. European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), Lisbon, Portugal (253): The purpose of the Agency is to ensure a high, uniform and effective level of maritime safety, maritime security, prevention of, and response to, pollution caused by ships as well as respond to marine pollution caused by oil and gas installations and, where appropriate, to contribute to the overall efficiency of maritime traffic and maritime transport so as to facilitate the establishment of a European Maritime Transport Space without Barriers. EMSA’s mission is to serve EU maritime interests for a safe, secure, green and competitive maritime sector and act as a reliable and respected point of reference in the maritime sector in Europe and worldwide. EMSA capitalizes on its unique know-how to position itself as an essential player in the maritime cluster in Europe and beyond. EMSA works on maritime safety, security, environment and single market issues and tasks, first as a service provider to Member States and the Commission, but also as an innovative and reliable partner and knowledge hub for the European maritime cluster and potentially beyond as a reference internationally.
  25. European Medicines Agency (EMA), Amsterdam, Netherlands (890):  The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is responsible for the scientific evaluation, supervision and safety monitoring of medicines in the EU for the benefit of public and animal health.  EMA is governed by an independent Management Board and its activities involve thousands of experts across Europe. These experts carry out the work of EMA’s scientific committees. EMA facilitates development and access to medicines: EMA is committed to enabling timely patient access to new medicines, and plays a vital role in supporting medicine development for the benefit of patients. The Agency uses a wide range of regulatory mechanisms to achieve these aims, which are continuously reviewed and improved.  EMA also plays a role in supporting research and innovation in the pharmaceutical sector, and promotes innovation and development of new medicines by European micro-, small-and medium-sized-enterprises. EMA evaluates applications for marketing authorizations: EMA’s scientific committees provide independent recommendations on medicines for human and veterinary use, based on a comprehensive scientific evaluation of data.  The Agency’s evaluation of marketing-authorizations applications submitted through the centralized procedure provides the basis for the authorization of medicines in Europe. They also underpin important decisions about medicines marketed in Europe, referred to EMA through referral procedures. EMA coordinates inspections in connection with the assessment of marketing-authorizations applications or matters referred to its committees. EMA monitors the safety of medicines across their lifecycle: EMA continuously monitors and supervises the safety of medicines that have been authorized in the EU, to ensure that their benefits outweigh their risks. The Agency works by developing guidelines and setting standards; coordinating the monitoring of pharmaceutical companie’s compliance with their pharmacovigilance obligations; contributing to international pharmacovigilance activities with authorities outside the EU; informing the public on the safety of medicines and cooperation with external parties, in particular representatives of patients and healthcare professionals. EMA provides information to healthcare professionals and patients: The Agency publishes clear and impartial information about medicines and their approved uses. This includes public versions of scientific assessment reports and summaries written in lay language.
  26. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal (102): The EMCDDA was set up to provide factual, objective, reliable and comparable information concerning drugs, drug addiction and their consequences.The EMCDDA provides the EU and its Member States with a factual overview of European drug problems and a solid evidence base to support the drugs debate. It offers policymakers the data they need for drawing up informed drug laws and strategies. It also helps professionals and practitioners working in the field pinpoint best practice and new areas of research. At the heart of the agency’s work is the promotion of scientific excellence. To achieve its core task of providing sound and comparable information on drugs in Europe, the EMCDDA has developed the infrastructure and tools needed to collect country data in a harmonised way. These data are then fed by national drug monitoring centres (Reitox network) to the Lisbon agency for analysis, resulting in a variety of information products conveying the broader European picture. While the EMCDDA is primarily European in focus, it also works with partners in other world regions, exchanging information and expertise. Collaboration with European and international organisations in the drugs field is also central to its work as a means of enhancing understanding of the global drugs phenomenon. The EMCDDA works on the principle that sound information is the key to an effective strategy on drugs. Although it does not propose policy, the agency is now making a clear impact on decision-making through the analyses, standards and tools it provides.
  27. European Public Prosecutor’ Office (EPPO) Luxembourg: EPPO will tackle large-scale, cross-border crime against the EU budget. It will have the power to investigate, prosecute and bring to judgment crimes against the EU budget, such as fraud, corruption or serious cross-border VAT fraud. The creation of the EPPO marks a fundamental development in the fight against crimes affecting the EU’s budget. It is also an important step towards creating a common criminal justice area in the European Union as a whole. The EPPO will be able to act quickly across borders without the need for lengthy judicial cooperation proceedings. This should lead to more successful prosecutions and help to recover defrauded money more efficiently. The EPPO will operate as a single office across all participating EU countries. It will not be part of the existing EU institutions and will combine European and national law- enforcement efforts in a unified, seamless and efficient approach. It will be fully independent, acting in the interests of the EU- and will neither seek nor take instructions from either EU or national authorities. The EPPO will operate on 2 levels: Central office at EU level: Supervise the investigations and prosecutions in each participating EU country to ensure independence, effective coordination and a uniform approach throughout the participating countries. Decentralized level, consisting of European delegated prosecutors, located in each participating EU country: Carry out investigations and prosecutions in each country, using national staff and generally applying national law. If the EPPO takes up an investigation, national authorities will stand back from making their own investigation into that crime. They will also have to report any relevant criminal conduct to EPPO. However, the EPPO will prosecute the criminals involved in the relevant national courts.
  28. European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), Paris, France (208) : ESMA is an independent EU Authority that contributes to safeguarding the stability of the European Union's financial system by enhancing the protection of investors and promoting stable and orderly financial markets. ESMA achieves its mission and objectives through four activities: Assessing risks to investors, markets and financial stability; Completing a single rulebook for EU financial markets; Promoting supervisory convergence; Directly supervising specific financial entities. The purpose of assessing risks to investors, markets and financial stability is to spot emerging trends, risks and vulnerabilities, and where possible opportunities, in a timely fashion so that they can be acted upon. ESMA uses its unique position to identify market developments that threaten financial stability, investor protection or the orderly functioning of financial markets. ESMA’s risk assessments build on and complement risk assessments made by other European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) and National Competent Authorities (NCAs), and contribute to the systemic work undertaken by the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB), which increasingly focuses on stability risks in financial markets. Internally, the output of the risk assessment function feeds into ESMA’s work on the single rulebook, supervisory convergence and the direct supervision of specific financial entities. Externally, it promotes transparency and investor protection by making information available to investors via its public registries and databases and, where needed, by issuing warnings to investors. The risk analysis function closely monitors the benefits and risks of financial innovation in the EU. The purpose of completing a single rulebook for EU financial markets is to enhance the EU Single Market by creating a level playing field for investors and issuers across the EU. ESMA contributes to strengthening the quality of the single rulebook for EU financial markets by developing Technical Standards and by providing advice to EU Institutions on legislative projects. This standard setting role was the primary task of ESMA in its development phase. Supervisory convergence is the consistent implementation and application of the same rules using similar approaches across the 27 Member States. The purpose of promoting supervisory convergence is to ensure a level playing field of high quality regulation and supervision without regulatory arbitrage or a race to the bottom between Member States. The consistent implementation and application of rules ensures the safety of the financial system, protects investors and ensures orderly markets.  Supervisory convergence implies sharing best practices and realising efficiency gains for both the NCAs and the financial industry. This activity is performed in close cooperation with NCAs. ESMA’s position in the ESFS makes it qualified to conduct peer reviews, set up EU data reporting requirements, thematic studies and common work programs, draft opinions, guidelines and Q&As; but also build a close network that can share best practices and train supervisors. ESMA’s participation in supervisory colleges for Central Counterparties (CCPs) contributes to supervisory convergence for this specific area. ESMA actively supports international supervisory coordination. ESMA is the direct supervisor of specific financial entities: Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) and Trade Repositories (TRs). These entities form essential parts of the EU’s market infrastructure. ESMA’s four activities are closely linked. Insights gained from risk assessment feed into the work on the single rulebook, supervisory convergence and direct supervision, and vice versa.
  29. European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB), Frankfurt, Germany : The ESRB is responsible for the macroprudential oversight of the EU financial system and the prevention and mitigation of systemic risk. The ESRB therefore has a broad remit, covering banks, insurers, asset managers, shadow banks, financial market infrastructures and other financial institutions and markets. In pursuit of its macroprudential mandate, the ESRB monitors and assesses systemic risks and, where appropriate, issues warnings and recommendations.
  30. European Training Foundation (ETF), Turin, Italy (130): The European Training Foundation is the EU agency supporting countries surrounding the European Union to reform their education, training and labour market systems. Its mission is to help transition and developing countries harness the potential of their human capital through the reform of education, training, and labour market systems, in the context of EU external relations policies.
  31. European Union agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Vienna, Austria'(116): FRA is the independent centre of reference and excellence for promoting and protecting human rights in the EU (free from discrimination on the basis of age, disability, ethnic background, protection of personal data, access to justice). FRA works with stakeholders from the local to international level and shares evidence-based insights and expert advice with policy-and decision-makers.  FRA collects and analyzes law and data; provides independent, evidence-based advice on rights; identifies trends by collecting and analyzing comparable data; helps better law making and implementation; supports rights-compliant policy responses; strengthens cooperation and ties between fundamental rights actors.
  32. European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (EUROPOL), The Hague, Netherlands (710): The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (Europol), is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU Member States. Headquartered in The Hague, the Netherlands, EUROPOL supports the 27 EU Member States in their fight against terrorism, cybercrime and other serious and organised forms of crime. It also works with many non-EU partner states and international organisations. Large-scale criminal and terrorist networks pose a significant threat to the internal security of the EU and to the safety and livelihood of its people. The biggest security threats come from: terrorism, international drug trafficking and money laundering, organized fraud, the counterfeiting of euros, trafficking of human beings. EUROPOL serves as a support centre for law enforcement operations, a hub for information on criminal activities, a centre for law enforcement expertise. EUROPOL produces regular assessments that offer comprehensive, forward-looking analyses of crime and terrorism in the EU: EU Serious and Organized Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA), EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT), Internet Organized Crime Threat Assessment (iOCTA) and Europol Review.
  33. European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training (CEPOL), Budapest, Hungary (50): CEPOL’s mission is to make Europe a safer place through law enforcement training and learning. CEPOL brings together law enforcement professionals to: offer them opportunities to grow personally and professionally through training; contribute by learning to solve issues related to European security; establish networks of training institutes and professionals. To contribute to law enforcement cooperation through learning for the benefit of European citizens, CEPOL aims at consistently providing products and services that meet stakeholder expectations and the applicable regulatory requirements. CEPOL intends to provide to a variety of stakeholder groups with high quality training and learning opportunities, and is continuously learning from international good practices. CEPOL is committed to implement internationally recognised management standards, such as ISO 9001:2015. CEPOL intends to ensure compliance with the applicable ISO 9001:2015 requirements and with the agency’s Internal Control Standards. CEPOL focuses on customers, stakeholders and other interested parties, provides leadership, engages and involves people, uses a process-based approach, encourages improvement, uses evidence-based decision-making, and manages effective stakeholder relationships. Furthermore, CEPOL aims at enhancing services through the effective application of the agency’s Management System, by continuously improving its processes, addressing risks and opportunities and ensuring the Management System is fit for purpose.
  34. European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA), Athens, and Heraklion, Greece (84): ENISA is actively contributing to European cybersecurity policy, supporting Member States and European Union stakeholders to support a response to large-scale cyber incidents that take place across borders in cases where two or more EU Member States have been affected. This work also contributes to the proper functioning of the Digital Single Market. The Agency works closely together with Member States and private sector to deliver advice and solutions as well as improving their capabilities. This support includes inter alia: the pan-European Cybersecurity Exercises, the development and evaluation of National Cybersecurity Strategies, CSIRTs cooperation and capacity building, studies on IoT and smart infrastructures, addressing data protection issues, privacy enhancing technologies and privacy on emerging technologies, eIDs and trust services, identifying the cyber threat landscape, and others. ENISA also supports the development and implementation of the European Union's policy and law on matters relating to network and information security (NIS) and assists Member States and European Union institutions, bodies and agencies in establishing and implementing vulnerability disclosure policies on a voluntary basis. Since 2019, following the bringing into force of the Cybersecurity Act (Regulation 2019/881), ENISA has been tasked to prepare the ‘European cybersecurity certification schemes’ that serve as the basis for certification of products, processes and services that support the delivery of the Digital Single Market. The  European Cybersecurity Act introduces processes that support the cybersecurity certification of ICT products, processes and services. In particular, it establishes EU wide rules and European schemes for cybersecurity certification of such ICT products, processes and services. ENISA's approach is further illustrated below by presenting its activities in different areas: Recommendations on cybersecurity and independent advice, Activities that support policy making and implementation, ‘Hands On’ work, where ENISA collaborates directly with operational teams throughout the EU, Bringing together EU Communities and coordinating the response to large scale cross-border cybersecurity incidents, Drawing up cybersecurity certification schemes.
  35. European Union Agency for Railways (ERA), Valenciennes and Lille, France (169): The mission of ERA is to make the railway system work better for society and contribute to the effective functioning of a Single European Railway Area without frontiers. ERA’s tasks include: promoting a harmonized approach to railway safety; devising the technical and legal framework in order to enable removing technical barriers and acting as the system authority for European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) and telematics applications, improving accessibility and use of railway system information, acting as the European Authority under the 4th Railway Package issuing vehicle (type) authorizations and single safety certificates, while improving the competitive position of the railway sector.
  36. European Union Intellectual Property Office  (EUIPO), Alicante, Spain (913): The EU Intellectual Property Office manages the EU Trade Mark and Design rights, the Observatory on infringement of Intellectual Property Rights and the Orphan Works Database. On average, the Office receives and examines over 150,000 trade mark and 90,000 design applications annually. It also encourages convergence of practices among EU countries’ IP offices through the European Union Intellectual Property Network’s cooperation activities. The Network enables members to share technical expertise and helps establish shared practices. It thus ensures EU-wide interoperability between procedures, systems, services and tools, such as databases and web-based platforms. Through the Observatory, the Office brings together a wide-reaching network of stakeholders, to raise awareness of IP infringement issues via studies, projects and tools. EUIPO also manages the Orphan Work Database providing digitized access to public information on literary, cinematographic or audiovisual works, pictures and photographs. Outside the EU, EUIPO implements EU-funded projects to strengthen IP protection systems globally, together with other international IP organizations to raise awareness of intellectual property rights protection, through training programs and other joint activities. These organizations include the European Patent Office (EPO) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
  37. European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen), Torrejon de Ardoz, Spain (121): SatCen supports EU decision-making and action in the context of Europe’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) . This means providing products and services based on exploiting space assets and collateral data, including satellite imagery and aerial imagery, and related services. Under the supervision of the Political and Security Committee and the operational direction of the EU’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, SatCen provides decision-makers with early warning of potential crises. This enables them to take diplomatic, economic and humanitarian measures in good time, including generic planning for intervention. It provides the following services: Geospatial intelligence: Depending on the task received, SatCen analyzes critical infrastructure, military capabilities or weapons of mass destruction, or other matters. It supports humanitarian aid missions, contingency planning and general crime and security surveillance; Training: SatCen provides specialized training for image analysts; Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) course; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) course; Imagery intelligence (IMINT) course; Imagery Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Nuclear Wepons-Related Facilities (Nuclear) course; Sketchup course; In-situ courses, Capability development initiatives. SatCen carries out projects and participates in programs designed to develop new capabilities or improve existing ones. It cooperates on other EU activities both with institutions in EU countries and with countries, organizations and bodies outside the EU.
  38. European Union's Judicial Cooperation Unit (EUROJUST), The Hague, Netherlands (710):  EUROJUST supports and strengthens coordination and cooperation between national investigating and prosecuting authorities. Eurojust assists prosecutors and other investigators from EU Member States in cases of serious crime where that crime affects two or more Member States, or requires prosecution on common bases, on the basis of operations conducted and information supplied by the Member States’ authorities, by Europol, by the EPPO and by OLAF. Eurojust acts at the request of the competent authorities of the Member States or on its own initiative. In some cases Eurojust can act at the request of the European Commission or the European Public Prosecutor’s Office.
  39. Office of the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC Office), Riga, Latvia (27): The BEREC Office provides professional and administrative support to BEREC, the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications. The BEREC Office is an EU agency providing professional and administrative support to BEREC, the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications. BEREC aims the relevant EU legislation is applied consistently, so the EU has a functioning single market for electronic communications. It provides advice on request and its own initiative to the European Institutions. BEREC consists if what is called the Board of Regulators. This is a body made up of the heads (or nominated high-level representatives) of each EU country’s national regulator. The BEREC Office: provides professional and administrative support to BEREC; collects information and shares best practice among national regulators; helps prepare the work of BEREC’s Board of Regulators; sets up BEREC expert working groups and supports them.
  40. Single Resolution Board  (SRB), Brussels, Belgium (245): The SRB is the central resolution authority within the Banking Union. Together with the National Resolution Authorities (NRAs) of participating Member States (MS), it forms the Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM). The SRB works closely with the NRAs, the European Commission (EC), the European Central Bank (ECB), the European Banking Authority (EBA) and national competent authorities (NCAs). Its mission is to ensure an orderly resolution of failing banks with minimum impact on the real economy, the financial system, and the public finances of the participating MS and beyond. The role of the SRB is proactive: rather than waiting for resolution cases to manage, the SRB focuses on resolution planning and enhancing resolvability, to avoid the potential negative impacts of a bank failure on the economy and financial stability. SRB’s main tasks are: To draft resolution plans for the banks under its direct responsibility. This includes the banks under the direct supervision of the SSM and all cross-border groups; To carry out an assessment of the banks’ resolvability and to adopt resolution plans; To address any obstacles to resolution and cooperate on resolving them; To set the minimum requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities (MREL); To follow up on early intervention measures; To trigger resolution (with the ECB); To adopt resolution decisions, to choose and decide on the use of resolution tools; To closely cooperate with and give instructions to National Resolution Authorities (NRAs). The SRB is in charge of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF). The SRF is financed by the banking sector. It has been set up to ensure that financial support is available as a last resort, after private solutions have been ruled out and after the owners and creditors have borne losses.
  41. Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union (CdT) Luxembourg City, Luxembourg (187)


Partnerships between the Commission and industry intend to bring project results closer to the market and improve the link between research and societal growth. Partnerships with the industry are established in the form of  Joint Undertakings (JUs). They are a form of public-private partnerships set up in strategic areas of research and innovation. The key strength for all the JUs is their ability to engage and leverage strategic industry partners across borders and business sectors, and their direct contribution to competitiveness and EU policy goals. The qualitative improvements to the sectors where the JUs operate are a widely praised contribution attributed to the JUs and one which according to a public survey would not have happened without the involvement of the EU. The Commission conducts regular evaluations of each partnership, reviewing their progress and sharing the findings with the Parliament and the Council. The evaluation is carried out by independent experts for the Commission. The most recent evaluation was made out in 2017, with positive results.

The results of the 2017 evaluation show that thanks to the JUs' establishment at the EU level, important achievements have been observed:

  • Integration of European research
  • More cross-border and cross-sector/interdisciplinary collaboration
  • Creation of a powerful framework for academic and industrial research
  • De-risking effect and encouragement of entrepreneurship
  • Better use of the available funding; better availability of research results
  • Quicker adoption of standards
  • Building of a genuinely EU-level supply chain capability
  • Resolving structural issues within sectors

These improvements could not be achieved by the industry alone, or by its partnership with the Member States without an intervention on a scale of that offered by the EU . Nevertheless, the full effect of the JUs' work will only be seen in a few years time. As with all research, taking a breakthrough discovery all the way to a successful product or service needs time. This is especially important in sensitive areas of research, such as public health.

  1. Bio-Based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU) (21) researching the use of renewable natural resources and innovative technologies for greener everyday products.
  2. Clean Sky2 Joint Undertaking (Clean Sky JU) (44) develops cleaner, quieter aircraft with significantly less emissions
  3. Electronic Components and Systems for European Leadership Undertaking (ECSEL) (31) to boost Europe’s electronics manufacturing capabilities
  4. Fusion for Energy- The European Union Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (FAE JU) (463)
  5. Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking (FCH2 JU) (26) accelerates market introduction of clean and efficient technologies in energy and transport
  6. Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI JU) (41)develops next generation vaccines, medicines and treatments, such as new antibiotics
  7. Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) Joint Undertaking (SESAR JU) (41)develops the new generation of European Air Traffic Management system that will enhance the performance of air transport
  8. Shift 2 Rail Joint Undertaking (S2R JU) (17) to develop better trains and railway infrastructure that will drastically reduce costs and improve capacity, reliability and punctuality)


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