1. Adjuvants. Substances that can be added to a vaccine to increase the effectiveness of the vaccine.
  2. Affected country. An at-risk country experiencing endemic (widespread and recurring) or epidemic (isolated) cases in humans with human pandemic potential.
  3. Antiviral medications. Medications presumed to be effective against potential pandemic virus strains.  
  4. Arrival screening. Medical screening upon arrival to detect individuals who have signs of illness or who are at high risk of developing illness.
  5. Asymptomatic. Asymptomatic means without symptoms of virus .
  6. At-risk country. An unaffected country with insufficient medical, public health, capacity to prevent, detect, or contain virus with pandemic potential.
  7. Containment. Contain an outbreak to the affected region(s) and limit of spread of the pandemic through aggressive attempts to contain.
  8. Continuity of operations. Refers to the capability to ensure the performance of essential functions during any emergency or situation that may disrupt normal operations.
  9. Cough etiquette. Covering ones mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing; using tissues and disposing in no-touch receptacles; and washing hands to avoid spreading an infection to others.
  10. Countermeasures. Refers to pre-pandemic and pandemic vaccine and antiviral medications.
  11. Critical infrastructure. Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to a country  that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters. Critical infrastructure includes the following sectors and key resources: agriculture and food; public health and health care; drinking water and water treatment systems; energy (including the production, refining, storage, and distribution of oil and gas, and electric power except for nuclear facilities); banking and finance; national monuments and icons; defense industrial base; information technology; telecommunications; chemical; transportation systems (including mass transit, aviation, maritime, ground/surface, and rail and pipeline systems); emergency services; postal and shipping; dams; government facilities; commercial facilities; and nuclear reactors, material, and waste.
  12. Delegation of authority. Identification, by position, the authorities for making policy determinations and decisions at headquarters, field levels, and other organizational locations, as appropriate. Generally, pre-determined delegations of authority will take effect when normal channels of direction are disrupted and terminate when these channels have resumed.
  13. Departure screening. Medical screening prior to departure from a high-risk area to identify individuals who have signs of illness or who are at high risk of developing illness.
  14. Devolution. The capability to transfer and sustain authority and responsibility for essential functions from an organization’s primary operating staff and facilities, to other employees and facilities.
  15. Disaggregation of disease transmission networks. The disruption of activities and social interactions that facilitate transmission of the virus  (e.g., closure of schools, canceling public meetings or large social gatherings, keeping schoolchildren home, and restriction of travel).
  16. Dose sparing strategies. Strategies to increase vaccine immunogenicity and minimize the dose of vaccine necessary to confer immunity.
  17. En route screening. Surveillance (typically by non-medical personnel) to detect individuals who develop signs of illness  while en route.
  18. Epidemic. A pronounced clustering of cases of disease within a short period of time; more generally, a disease whose frequency of occurrence is in excess of the expected frequency in a population during a given time interval.
  19. ESAR-VHP. Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals.
  20. Essential functions. Functions that are absolutely necessary to keep a business operating during a pandemic, and critical to survival and recovery.
  21. Face mask. Disposable surgical or procedure face mask
  22. Geographic quarantine (cordon sanitaire). The isolation, by force if necessary, of localities with documented disease transmission from localities still free of infection.
  23. Hand hygiene. Hand washing with either plain soap or antimicrobial soap and water and use of alcoholbased products (gels, rinses, foams) containing an emollient that do not require the use of water.
  24. High-throughput rapid diagnostic kit. Medical technology to accurately and rapidly detect virus strains.
  25. High-risk country. An at-risk country that is located in proximity to an affected country, or in which a case of virus with pandemic potential has been detected.
  26. Installations. Refers to military posts, installation, bases, stations, and activities.
  27. International financial institution. Usually refers to intergovernmental organizations dealing with financial issues, most often the International Monetary Fund and/or the World Bank, European Central Bank
  28. Isolation. Separation of infected individuals from those who are not infected.
  29. Key assets. Subset of key resources that are individual targets whose destruction could cause large scale injury, death, or destruction of property, and/or profoundly damage national prestige or confidence.
  30. Key resources. Publicly or privately controlled resources essential to the minimal operations of the economy and government.
  31. Layered protective measures. Rather than focusing on a single measure for mitigation, a layered approach uses an array of measures deployed in tandem, to reduce overall risk. A layered, system-wide, integrated approach to risk reduction includes redundant measures and is designed to avoid a single point of failure. Examples include, implementing pre-departure, en route, and arrival screening measures for international travel.
  32. Local education agencies (LEAs). Local (State, county, city, district) school boards.
  33. Localities. Refers to local (city, municipal) governments and agencies.
  34. Lockdown: Term used for actions related to mass quarantines. Lockdowns can limit movements or activities in a community while allowing most organizations to function normally, or limit movements or activities such that only organizations supplying basic needs and services can function normally. Many countries have introduced lockdown measures that have led many citizens having to spend much, if not all, of their time at home. Multilateral development banks. Multilateral development banks are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries.
  35. Orders of succession. Refers to the sequential order or ranking of individuals who would assume authority and responsibility if the leadership is incapacitated or unavailable.
  36. Outbreak. An epidemic limited to localized increase in the incidence of disease, e.g., in a village, town, or closed institution; a cluster of cases of an infectious disease.
  37. Outbreak containment. Disruption of epidemic amplification through the use of medical countermeasures and infection control techniques; “containment” also refers more generally to delaying the geospatial spread of an epidemic.
  38. Pandemic. A worldwide epidemic when a new or novel strain of virus emerges in which humans have little or no immunity, and develops the ability to infect and be passed between humans.
  39. Pandemic vaccine. Vaccine for specific virus strain that has evolved the capacity for sustained and efficient human-to-human transmission. This vaccine can only be developed once the pandemic strain emerges.
  40. Pathogenicity. Refers to the condition or quality of being pathogenic, or the ability to cause disease.
  41. Plan. Refers to the Implementation of a  National Strategy for Pandemic
  42. Post-exposure prophylaxis. The use of antiviral medications in individuals exposed to others with influenza to prevent disease transmission.
  43. Priority country. A priority country is a high-risk or affected country that merits special attention because of the severity of the outbreak, its strategic importance, its regional role, or foreign policy priorities.
  44. Procedure mask. Disposable face mask that is either flat or pleated and is affixed to the head with ear loops.
  45. Prophylaxis. Prevention of disease or of a process that can lead to disease. With respect to pandemic this specifically refers to the administration of antiviral medications to healthy individuals for the prevention of influenza
  46. Quarantine. Separation of individuals who have been exposed to an infection but are not yet ill from others who have not been exposed to the transmissible infection.
  47. Rapid diagnostic test. Medical test for rapidly confirming the presence of infection with a specific virus strain.
  48. Reconstitution. Refers to the process by which an organization resumes normal operations.
  49. Respirator. Refers to a particulate respirator, commonly known as N-95 respirator, often used in hospitals to protect against infectious agents. Particulate respirators are “air-purifying respirators” because they clean particles out of the air as one breathes.
  50. R0. Represents the basic reproductive rate of a pathogen, i.e., the average number of secondary infections caused by an infected individual within a given social context. An R0 = 2 means that infected individuals, on average, transmit infection to two other people, so that every generation of disease transmission doubles the number of people infected. R0 will change during an epidemic as public health interventions are applied, the behavior of individuals changes, and as the pool of persons susceptible to the disease is depleted.
  51. Situational awareness. Situational awareness is the ability to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information about what is happening during an evolving pandemic.
  52. Snow days. Refers to days which the authorities recommend that individuals and families limit social contacts by remaining within their households to reduce community disease transmission of infection.
  53. Social distancing. Infection control strategies that reduce the duration and/or intimacy of social contacts and thereby limit the transmission of the virus. There are two basic categories of intervention: transmission interventions, such as the use of facemasks, may reduce the likelihood of casual social contacts resulting in disease transmission; contact interventions, such as closing schools or canceling large gatherings, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of contact with infected individuals.
  54. Standard of care. The level of care that is reasonably expected under the extant circumstances.
  55. Strategy. Refers to the National Strategy for Pandemic.
  56. Surge capacity. Refers to the ability to expand provision of services beyond normal capacity to meet transient increases in demand. Surge capacity within a medical context denotes the ability of health care or laboratory facilities to provide care or services above their usual capacity, or to expand manufacturing capacity of essential medical materiel (e.g., vaccine) to meet increased demand.
  57. Surgical mask. Refers to disposable face masks that comes in two basic types: one type is affixed to the head with two ties, conforms to the face with the aid of a flexible adjustment to the nose bridge, and may be flat/pleated or duck-billed in shape; the second type of surgical mask is pre-molded, adheres to the head with a single elastic and has a flexible adjustment for the nose bridge.
  58. Symptomatic. Symptomatic means with symptoms of the virus.
  59. Targeted passenger travel restrictions. Travel restrictions to the country targeting travelers from a high-risk area or from areas unable to meet national criteria for departure and en route screening.
  60. Telecommuting. Working from home or an alternate site and avoiding coming to the workplace through telecommunication (computer access).
  61. Telework. Refers to the activity of working away (home) from the workplace through telecommunication (computer access).
  62. Tg. Generation time of a pathogen, or how long it takes for infected individuals to infect others. Epidemics caused by a pathogen with an R0 = 2 and a Tg = 2 days will double in size about every 2 days, epidemics caused by a pathogen with an R0 = 3 and a Tg = 9 days will triple in size about every 9 days, etc.
  63. Treatment course (antiviral medications). The course of antiviral medication prescribed as treatment (not prophylaxis) for a person infected with an agent susceptible to the antiviral medication.
  64. Treatment course (vaccine). The course of vaccine (typically two injections) required to induce protective immunity against the target of the vaccine.
  65. Virulence. Virulence refers to the disease-evoking severity of virus.
  66. Wave. The period during which an outbreak or epidemic occurs either within a community or aggregated across a larger geographical area. The disease wave includes the time during which disease occurrence increases rapidly, peaks, and declines back toward baseline.

Add new comment