1. 100 countries - accounting for more than two-thirds of the global economy - have set firm dates for achieving net-zero emissions.
  2. The United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, Japan, Canada, South Korea and New Zealand - all strengthened their 2030 targets. The G7 group of countries pledged to halve their collective emissions by 2030.
  3. China pledged to achieve net-zero emissions by 2060 and strengthened its 2030 targets. It now plans to peak emissions by the end of the decade.
  4. India also pledged to achieve net-zero by 2070 and ramp up installation of renewable energy. By 2030, half of India’s electricity will come from renewable sources.
  5. Canada said it would allocate about $1 billion - out of $5.3 billion previously pledged for climate finance - to "nature-based climate solutions" in developing countries over the next five years.
  6. The UK declared the end of coal was in sight, as it launched a new global coalition to phase out coal-fired power.More than 40 nations will phase out coal.
  7. The UK said it will give a 500-million-pound ($675 million) boost to protect more than 5 million hectares of tropical rainforests across Africa, Asia and Latin America.
  8. Australia brought to Glasgow the same 2030 emissions target that it took to Paris six years ago - even as key allies pledged much stronger targets. It did pledge however additional A$500 million in climate finance to countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific – a figure well short of Australia’s fair share of global efforts. Australia also refused to rejoin the Green Climate Fund.
  9. More than 90 countries signed on to a new pledge to cut methane emissions by at least 30% from 2020 levels by 2030. China, India and Russia decided to sit out the methane pledge on the grounds that wealthier nations should be leading the way. Brazil, though, is in, seemingly now signing up to everything
  10. 45 nations have made pledges to safeguard nature, including the United States, Japan, Germany, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Vietnam, the Philippines, Gabon, Ethiopia, Ghana and Uruguay. The pledges include $4 billion in public sector investment which will help spur innovation such as developing crops resilient to droughts, floods and heatwaves that can benefit hundreds of millions of farmers. 
  11. 28 nations that are big consumers of deforestation-linked commodities such as beef, soy, palm oil and cocoa have joined a Forest, Agriculture and Commodity Trade (FACT) roadmap launched in February this year.
  12. Peru and Cameroon will increase support for small-scale farmers.
  13. Nepal and Madagascar said they will  join efforts to protect at least 30% of the planet’s land and oceans by 2030. 
  14. More than 120 countries have promised to end deforestation by 2030. $19.2bn from governments and the private sector, most of the major forest nations are signed up, and there is an extra package of more than $1bn for indigenous communities, who are the most effective forest guardians. There are also long overdue steps towards the creation of sustainable supply chains and deforestation-free international trade, though a lot more detail and buy-in is needed in this area.
  15. More than 40 countries agreed to phase out coal-fired power. Canada, South Korea, Ukraine, Indonesia and Vietnam said they would quit this dirtiest form of fossil fuels between 2030 and 2040. Even Poland signed up. Other nations promised to halve financing of coal plants overseas. The US, China, Australia and India keep coal alive outside this agreement, but the alliance will try to wear them down.
  16. The US also joined a coalition of countries that plans to achieve net zero emissions in global shipping
  17. The developed world fell short  of fulfilling a decade-old promise - to deliver US$100 billion each year to help poorer nations deal with climate impacts.

The summit results still fall well short of what is required to limit warming to 1.5℃. Attention will now turn to negotiating an outcome to further increase climate ambition this decade: climate rulebook, carbon credit trading systems, questions of loss and damage, and most of all climate finance – whether the rich nations largely responsible for the climate crisis will provide sufficient funds for poor, vulnerable and developing nations to switch to renewable energy.


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