LOBBYING IN POLAND

LOBBYING IN MEXICO

Authors: Sergio Chagoya Diaz and Elias Zaga Belzer (Santamarina y Steta SC)

Constitution: The basic source of law in the United Mexican States (Mexico) is a written federal constitution dating from 1917 (the Constitution), which consists of 136 articles, many of which have been somehow amended throughout all these years.

LOBBYING IN THE U.S.A.

Author: Charles L. Landgraf (Arnold & Porter)

LOBBYING IN RUSSIA

Authors: Eugeny Roshkov, Yury Panasik and Pavel Melnikov (Kesarev)

LOBBYING IN GERMANY

Authors: Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann and Mathias von Kaler (PricewaterhouseCoopers)

LOBBYING IN FRANCE

Authors: Jean- Luc Soulier and Geoffroy Lacroix (Soulier AARPI)

LOBBYING IN ITALY

Authors: Alberto Pera and Francesco Salerno (Gianno, Origoni, Grippo, Capelli & Partners)

LOBBYING IN BRAZIL

Authors: Marcos Joaquim Gonçalves Alves, Fernanda Burle, Leandro modesto Coimbra, Barbara Rodrigues Lima Teles and Bruna da Cunha Costa Cardoso (MJ Alves e Burle Advogados e Consultores Advocacy, Brasil.

ASSESSING THE LOBBYING ENVIRONMENT

  1. Constitution: What is the basic source of law? What is the scope of, and limitations on government power relevant to the regulation of lobbying and government relations.
  2. Legislative system: Legislative system as it relates to lobbying
  3. National subdivisions: Extent to which legislative or rule-making authority relevant to lobbying practice also exists at regional, provincial or municipal level.

KEY DETERMINANTS OF LOBBYING ENVIRONMENT

Lobbying is different everywhere. Each country has a distinct interest group system. That is not to say that lobbying techniques and tactics are not similar in most locations, for they are. In every interest group community to greater or lesser extents and to greater or lesser degrees of effectiveness lobbyists talk directly to policy-makers, join coalitions, stimulate grassroots efforts, undertake policy research and frame policy issues, use the media to advance issues, and so on. These activities, if not entirely universal, are quite common.

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