Most of the major movements have existed before the collapse of the Soviet Union and attempted to break away in the 90s or 2000s. These movements have some levels of support among the local population, diaspora, local politicians and regional elites. Most of the movements are still small in size.

  1. Northwestern Federal District: The movements are mainly located in the Kaliningrad, Leningrad and Arkhangelsk Oblasts, as well as in the Karelian and Komi Republics.
  2. Baltic Republic: The Baltic Republic (or Land of Amber/Yantarny Krai is a proposed state within the borders of Kaliningrad Oblast.
  3. Ingria: Ingermanland or Ingria is a proposed state within the borders of Leningrad Oblast and the city of Saint Petersburg.  
  4. Karelia:
  5. Komi: Komi separatism primarily focuses on the preservation of Komi culture, language, and local ecology. Komi separatists are represented on the Free Nations of Post-Russia Forum.
  6. Pomorie: Pomorie (sometimes referred to as Biarmia) is a proposed state within the borders of Arkhangelsk Oblast, some movements also include Murmansk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug as part of a proposed state. 
  7. Southern Federal District: The movements are mainly located in Astrakhan Oblast, Crimea, Krasnodar Krai, Rostov Oblast and
  8. Kalmykia. Some political commentators believe that separatism in that region is funded by Ukraine.
  9. Astrakhan: Astrakhan separatism may refer to the idea of uniting with Kalmykia as an independent state or a creation of an independent Astrakhan Republic or Nogai Republic. 
  10. Cossackia: Since the collapse of the USSR, several attempts have been made to revive the Don Republic. The Don Cossack Republic was proclaimed in the fall of 1991 and became part of the Union of Cossack Republics of Southern Russia, which planned to become one of the union republics.
  11. Kalmykia: Kalmyk separatism seeks the creation of an independent Kalmyk state and unification with Astrakhan Oblast.
  12. Kuban: Kuban separatism or Kuban Cossack separatism
  13. North Caucasian Federal District: Separatism in North Caucasian Federal District is primarily ethnic.
  14. Chechnya
  15. Confederation of Peoples of the Caucasus: The Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (or Confederation of Peoples of the Caucasus)[ is a proposed state within the borders of Russia's Caucasian republics, South Ossetia and Abkhazia
  16. Circassia: Circassia is proposed state that covers the land which was historically inhabited by Circassian people, such as Adygeya (Part of Southern Federal District), north Kabardino-Balkaria, north Karachay-Cherkessia, south east Krasnodar Krai, and south Stavropol Krai
  17. Dagestan: Dagestan separatism can refer to the idea of an independent united Dagestan or disunited independent states, such as Aghulistan, Avaria, Lezgistan , Darginstan, Lakistan, Rutukstan and Tabarasanstan.
  18. Ingushetia: Ingush separatism has been growing after the collapse of the Soviet Union due to the fact that the borders between Chechnya, North Ossetia-Alania, and Ingushetia have not been decided upon.
  19. North Ossetia: Alanian (or Ossetian) separatism refers to the movement to create an independent united  Ossetian nation by uniting with South Ossetia.
  20. Volga Federal District:Separatism in Volga Federal District is primarily ethnic. All the republics have an active separatist movement.
  21. Bashkortostan: Modern Bashkir separatism began in the 90s and was influenced by Tatarstan
  22. Chuvashia: Chuvash separatism focuses on the preservation of Chuvash language of culture and the creation of an independent Chuvash Republic or Volga Bulgaria.
  23. Erzyan Mastor: Erzyan Mastor (Land of Erzya) movement claims the territories of Republic of Mprdovia, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan and Samara Oblasts. The movement wants to create a federative state with a Moksha autonomy.
  24. Idel-Ural: The main movement of modern Idel-Ural separatists is the Free Idel-Idel -Ural that wants to create a multi-ethnic federal state
  25. Mari-El: Modern Mari separatism began with the collapse of the USSR.
  26. Tatarstan: Modern Tatar separatism began in 1990, when Tatar ASSR declared its sovereignty from the USSR and the RSFSR. In October 18, 1991, the Republic of Tatarstan declared its full independence. In 1992 an independence referendum was held, in which more than 50% voted for full independence from Russia. Many political scientists and commentators believe that Tatarstan is the leading separatist force in modern Russia and an example for other movements.
  27. Udmurtia: Udmurt separatism focuses on protection of local culture, languageand the creation of an Udmurt state. Udmurt separatism is supported by various Finno-Ugric organizations.
  28. Ural Federal District: Separatism in the Ural Federal District is primarily represented by the Ural Republic separatists.
  29. Ural Republic: The Ural Republic is proposed state within the border of Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Orenburg Oblasts and Perm Krai
  30. Siberian Federal District: Separatism in the Siberian Federal District is primarily represented by the Siberian separatists and ethnic separatists in the republics.
  31. Siberia: There are many Siberian regionalist movements.The main causes of separatism are economic dependence and Chinese influence over Siberian economy and ecology.
  32. Tuva: Tuvan separatism was at its strongest in the early 2000s. Tuva separatism is aided by the fact that Tuva is one of the poorest regions of Russia and ethnic Russians are a very small minority in the Republic.
  33. Far Eastern Federal District: Separatism in the Far Eastern Federal District is primarily pushed for by Buryats, and Russians concerned about economic dependence on Moscow or economic exploitation.
  34. Buryatia: Buryat separatism may refer either to the idea of an independent Buryat state or the idea of Buryatia uniting with Mongolia. 
  35. Far Eastern Republic: The Far Eastern Republic is a proposed state within the border of the entire Far Eastern Federal District, excluding Sakha and Buryatia.  The separatists see the proposed republic as the continuation of the Far Eastern Republic. Far Eastern separatism is primarily caused by economic dependence on Moscow.
  36. Sakha: Sakha or Yakut separatism seeks the creation of an independent Yakutian state. The primary cause of Yakut separatism is economic exploitation by the federal government.

Summary (Federal Subject and Proposed State)

  1. Adyghea: Circassia
  2. Arkhangelsk: Pomorie
  3. Astrakhan: Unification with Kalmykia
  4. Bashkortostan: Bashkortistan
  5. Buryatia: Buryatia
  6. Central Federal District: Zalessian Rus’
  7. Chechnya: Ichkeria
  8. Chuvashia: Chuvashia or Volga Bulgaria
  9. Far Eastern Federal District: Far Eastern Republic
  10. Ingushetia: Ingushetia
  11. Kaliningrad: Baltic Republic
  12. Kalmykia: Kalmykia
  13. Karelia: Karelia
  14. Komi: Komi
  15. Krasnodar: Kuban
  16. Leningrad: Ingria
  17. Mari El: Mati El
  18. Mordovia: Erzyan Mastor
  19. Pskov: East Krivia
  20. Rostov Oblast: Cossackia
  21. Sakha: Sakha
  22. Smolensk: Smalandia
  23. Siberia Federal District: Siberia
  24. Tatarstan: Tatarstan
  25. Tuva: Tuva
  26. Udmurtia: Udmurtia
  27. Ural Federal District: Ural Republic



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